Graphite electrodes are used mainly in electric arc furnace steel production. They are presently the only products available that have both high levels of electrical conductivity and the capability of sustaining the extreme heat generated in this demanding environment. Graphite electrodes are also used to refine steel in ladle furnaces and in other smelting processes.
The electric arc furnace method recycles used iron scrap by melting it in an electric arc furnace. It is the graphite electrodes inside the furnace that actually melt the iron. Graphite has high thermal conductivity and is very resistant to heat and impact. It also has low electrical resistance, which means it can conduct the large electrical currents needed to melt iron. In recent years, graphite electrodes have been made even more efficient: they can now conduct even higher currents and more power